Mountain Massif Dyngjufjoll in the southern Odadahraun lava area has an area of
about 600 km≤. The
Dyngjufjalla Valley divides its westernmost part, the 20 km long
mountain range Dyngjufjoll ytri, from the main massif.
The main massif surrounds a 50 miles square caldera called Askja.
The mountains are steep and indented with gullies and gorges.
Their structure is mainly hyaloclastite with a few small rhyolite
intrusions and Holocene lava fields.
The area is almost devoid of vegetation and water is scarce
because of the permeability. The
greatest historic eruption started in 1875.
It devastated the settlements on the moorland Jokuldalsheidi and
ashes were traced across the northern part of continental Europe.
The crater Viti did not emit these enormous clouds of ashes, but
craters that disappeared when Lake Oskjuvatn was created.
The crater Viti probably only emitted boiling mud and a small
volume of ashes. Many other
historic eruptions in this area are recorded, such as the 1921 Batshraun
eruption, the 1922 Myvetninga Lava eruption, the 1922-23 eruption, which
created the lava fields Kvislahraun and Sudurbotnahraun, the 1926
eruption, which left a small island in Lake Oskjuvatn, the 1926-30
eruption (Thorvaldshraun), and the 1961 eruption, which created the
The Lava Ridge Dyngjuhals stretches to the north from the western part of the
glacier tongue Dyngjujokull. It
is dotted with the craters of five crater rows, which lie side by side
and make this small area the most volcanically scorched in the country.
Those crater rows were created by fissure eruptions, which were
5-10 km long south of the shield volcano Trolladyngja, and continued
north of it. The lava
fields created during those eruptions can be traced south into the
Vonarskard Pass and to the north along River Skjalfandafljot.
The Caldera Grimsvotn situated under the western part of the icecap Vatnajokull and is thus
ice filled. Its greatest
depth is about 600 metres and its area is close to 40 kilometres square.
It has been very volcanically active during historic times, and
the latest eruptions took place in 1996 and 1998.
Eldgja, the 40 km long
fire fissure, was created during one of the largest eruptions on
earth around 930 (Gudrun Larsen). The
Katla volcano probably is a part of the same system further south.
It has erupted at least 20 times during historic times.
Katla is one of the largest calderas of the country, 700 metres
deep and 110 kilometres square. Tephra
and water can rush from the volcanic areas through the so-called Entugja
gorge down to the outwash plain Markarfljotsaurar, down under the
Solheimajokull glacier tongue as well as down the Myrdalís sander
outwash plain. Katla has
only produced lahar floods up to 1 km≥ in size.
The magma chamber under the volcano is estimated at the depth of
1-1Ĺ kilometres. Its
highest part therefore might lie above sea level, which makes it the
shallowest one in the country. It
contains 30-40 km≥ of magma.
Thjorsa Lava Field was created about 7800 years ago.
Its volume is close to 21 km≥ and its area about 920 km≤, which
makes it the largest lava field created during the last 10 thousand
years. It ran from craters
in the vicinity of the Heljargja gorge all the way to the sea in the
The following geologically
interesting phenomena in the Interior can be found in the Travel- and
the Angling Guides:
Kverkfjoll, Landmannaafrettur, Siduafrettur,
Heljargja and Vonarskard.