Geography and nature

About Iceland’s Geography and Nature

Iceland is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, located near the Arctic Circle, between Greenland and Norway. An island of 103.000 km2 (40,000 square miles), it is about the same size as Hungary and Portugal, or Kentucky and Virginia. Iceland is the second largest island in Europe, following Great Britain, and the 18th largest island in the world. The coastline is 4,970 km, and Iceland maintains a 200 nautical-miles exclusive economic zone. It takes approximately five hours to fly from New York to Reykjavík, and three hours from London.

Iceland is one of the youngest landmasses on the planet, and consequently home to some of the world’s most active volcanoes. The island owes its existence to a large volcanic fissure in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the Eurasian and American tectonic plates meet. Even today, the country is growing by about 5 cm per year, as it splits wider at the points where two tectonic plates meet.

In 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted and in 2011 Grímsvötn. The latest volcanic eruption was in Holuhraun from August 2014 to February 2015. The eruption produced a lava field of more than 85 km2 (33 sq mi) and 1.4 km3 (0.34 cu mi) – the largest in Iceland since 1783.

Iceland’s highest peak is Hvannadalshnjúkur, standing 2.119 metres (6852 ft) over sea level. and over 11 percent of the country is covered by glaciers, including Vatnajökull, the largest in Europe. Its land mass comprises glaciers (12,000 km2), lava (11,000 km2), sand (4,000 km2), water (3,000 km2) and pasture (1,000 km2).

Iceland is the least populated country in Europe. Almost 80% of the country is uninhabited, and much of its terrain consists of plateaux, mountain peaks, and fertile lowlands. There are many long, deep fjords and glaciers, including Europe’s largest, Vatnajökull. Its landscape’s is characterized by waterfalls, geysers, volcanoes, black sand beaches and otherworldly steaming lava fields.

Iceland has very mild, coastal weather, stemming from the Gulf Stream. The weather is also affected by the East Greenland polar current curving south-eastwards round the north and east coasts. The average summer temperature in Reykjavik is 10.6°C/51°F in July, with average highs of 24.3°C/76°F. The average winter temperature in Reykjavik is similar to New York City’s, about 0°C/32°F in January (average highs are 9.9°C/50°C). The weather can be very unpredictable and often changes in an instant.

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Articles in Geography and nature

Winter Visits to SKAFTAFELL National Park

For your own afety it i of highe t importance to take nece ary precaution... more

Wild Mammals in Iceland

Iceland cannot boa t of many pecie of wild animal compared to many other... more

Arctic Fox in Iceland

The arctic fox (Alopex Lagopu ) i believed to have occupied Iceland ince the... more

Mink in Iceland

In 1931, the mink (Mu tela Vi on) wa imported for fur farming Quite a few... more

Polar Bears in Iceland

The polar bear (Ur u maritimu , formerly Thalarcto maritimu ) i al o called... more

Rabbits in Iceland

Rabbit imported a pet have become a part of the wild fauna of everaæ part... more

Reindeer in Iceland

The reindeer (Rangifer Tarandu ) i a relatively new addition to the wild... more

Rodents in Iceland

Only four pecie of rodent occur in Iceland, the wood mou e (Apodemu... more

Birds of the South

The exten ive alluvial or outwa h plain ( ander) of the ea tern outh coa t,... more

Birds of the Southwest

In the capital and it vicinity, there are everal good place for ob erving... more

Birds of the West

About 50 km from Reykjavik and only a hort di tance from the main road, Lake... more

Birds of the Westfjords

The mountainou and indented northwe t penin ula ha everal place of... more

Birds of the North

In the northern lowland , between the village of Hvamm tangi and Blonduo ,... more

Birds of the East

There i a large bird cliff on the penin ula Langane in the northea tern... more

Birds of the Interior

Mo t of the interior plateau i devoid of vegetation, except in a few area ,... more

Common Seal

The common eal or the harbour eal get 2 m long and weigh up to 150 kg It... more

Grey Seal or Horse Head Seal

In common grey eal area out ide Iceland it eem to be polygamou According... more

Hooded Seal

The hooded eal’ primary habitat are around Greenland and Newfoundland It... more

Harp Seal

The harp eal’ habitat are mo tly in the Arctic Ocean on both ide of... more

Bearded Seal

The bearded eal’ habitat are mainly cattered all over the Arctic Ocean It... more


In earlier time there wa only one breed of walru e It developed in different... more

Ringed Seal

The ringed eal’ primary habitat i the northern Arctic Ocean It al o exi t... more

Killer Whale

Adult male are 7-10 m long and weigh 4½-10 ton and female are 5½-8½ m and... more

Humpback Whale

The hump back whale (Lat Megaptera novaeangliae) in Icelandic water i 12,5-13... more

Minke Whale

The minke whale (Lat Balaenoptera acutoro trata) eldom grow longer than 9 m... more

Fin Whale

The male are about 18 m long and the female about 19,5 m The male weigh 50... more

Sei Whale

The ei whale (Lat Balaenoptera boreali ) i 12½-15 m long in Icelandic water... more

Blue Whale

Blue whale (Lat Balaenoptera mu culu ) in Icelandic water are 22-25 m long... more

Northern Bottlenose Whale

In Icelandic water the average ize of male adult i 8,4 m and 7½-8½ ton ,... more

Long Finned Pilot Whale

Male are 6-8 m long and weigh 4-5 ton , female 4-6 m, and 2-3 ton The... more

Sperm Whale

Fully grow adult male are 17-20 m long and weigh 40-52 ton Female are 8-17 m... more

White Beaked Dolphin

Adult male are about 3 m long and weigh 250-370 kg Female are 2½-3 m long... more

Harbour Porpoise

Adult male weigh about 7 kg and are le than 2 m long Female are equally... more

Common Dolphin

Adult male are 1,8-2,6 m long and weigh 80-140 kg Female are 1,7-2,3 m long... more

Beluga Whale

Adult male are 4,2 – 5,5 m long and weigh 1-1,6 ton Female are 3-4,1 m... more


Adult male around Iceland are 4-6 m long and weigh 1,2 – 1,6 ton and the... more

Twaite Shad

The twaite had (Alo a fallax) i mainly found in the Baltic Sea, up along the... more

The Northern Bluefin Tuna

The northern bluefin tuna (giant gluefin tuna - Lat Thunnu thynnu ) inhabit... more

Toad Crab or Small Spider Crab

The toad crab' (Lat Hya araneu ) habitat i in hallow water all around... more

Thornback Ray

The thornback ray' (Lat Raja clavata) nout i very hort and almo t at an... more

Spotted Catfish

The potted catfi h' (Lat Anarrhicha minor) habitat i above the ocean floor... more

Common Skate

The common kate (Lat Raja bati linnaeu ) ha a pointed nout It length i... more

Edible Sea Urchin

The life cycle of a ea urchin (Lat Echinu e culentu ) tart by pawning... more

Sea or Arctic Char

The ea or arctic char (Lat Salvelinu alpinu ) i mainly to be found in the... more

Catfish – Seawolf

The catfi h ( eawolf, Atlantic catfi h, Atlantic wolffi h, wolf eel - Lat... more

The Icelandic Salmon

Salmon (Lat Salmo alar) fi hing wa practi ed in Iceland from it earlie t... more

Saithe – Pollock

The aithe' (Lat Pollachiu viren ) habitat i in the North Atlantic Ocean,... more

European Plaice

The plaice' (Lat Pleuronecte plate a linnaeu ) habitat are in the Northea t... more

Orange Roughy

The orange roughy' (Lat Hoplo tethu i landicu ) habitat i mainly off the... more

Opah – King Fish – Sun Fish

The opah' (Lat Lampri guttatu or luna) mouth i toothle and can be... more

Ocean Perch – Redfish – Norway Haddock

The ocean perch (Lat Seba te marinu ) live near the ea floor clo e to land... more

Norway Pout

The Norway pout' (Lat Boreogadu e marki) habitat are in the Northea t... more

Norway Lobster

The Norway lob ter (Dublin Bay prawn, langou tine, campi - Lat Nephrop... more

Northern Horse Mussel

The northern hor e mu el (Lat Modiola modiola) i one of the mo t common... more

Northern Shrimp

The northern hrimp (Lat Pandalu boreali ) i one of the animal called... more

Megrim – Whiff – Sail Fluke

The megrim' habitat are off the coa t of Europe, from the Trondheim' Bay in... more

Lumpsucker or Lumpfish

The lumpfi h (Lat Cyclopteru lumpu ) ha no cale and the ventral fin form a... more


The ling' (Lat Molva Molva) habitat i in the northea t Atlantic, from... more

Iceland Scallop – Northern Clam

Scallop aggregate in patch-like group , and commercially fi hable... more

Iceland Cyprine

Thi mu el (Lat Arctica i landica or Cyprina i landica) i the mo t common of... more


The herring' (Lat Clupea harengu linnaeu ) habitat i in the North Atlantic,... more

Atlantic Halibut

The halibut' (Lat Hippoglo u hippoglo u ) habitat on the ocean floor in the... more


Haddock (off hore hake - Lat Melanogrammu aeglefinu ) ha it habitat in the... more

Greenland Halibut

The Greenland halibut' (Lat Reinhardtiu hippoglo oide ) habitat i in the... more

Gray Sole

The Flounder' (Lat Glyptocephalu cynoglo u ) habitat are in the North... more

European Eel or Elver

The American eel (Lat Anguilla ro trata) and the European eel (Lat Anguilla... more

Picked dogfish or spurdog

In front of both dor al fin are hollow, poi oned pike The dogfi h' (Lat:... more


The cod' (Lat: Gadu morhua) habitat are in the North Atlantic, from... more


The capelin' (Lat: Mallotu villo u ) habitat i in the cold ea of the North... more


The total area of thi mall glacier i about 19 km² It i located ju t north... more

Krafla Fires

The event that have taken place in the Krafla caldera and on the Krafla... more

Bridge Between Two Continents

According to the continental drift theory, the Eura ian and North American... more

Thingvellir Drift Zone

According to the continental drift theory, the Eura ian and North American... more

Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonic are a theory of global tectonic (geological tructural... more

Volcanism in Iceland

The proce e by which molten rock material, or magma, ri e from the interior... more

About Iceland

Where i Iceland The ea ternmo t point of the country i Gerpir (13°30’V),... more

Deepest Lakes

Deepe t lake in Iceland (meter ) O kjuvatn: 220 Hvalvatn: 160... more

Average Volume of Rivers

Average volume of river (m3/ ec): Olfu a / Hvita at town Selfo : 423... more

Hofsjokull East Glacier

Glacier Hof jokull Ea t (1069m) i located ea t of Glacier Vatnajokull, between... more

Eruption in Eyjafjallajokull 2010

On March 20th 2010 ( pring equinox), hortly before midnight, a half a... more

Vatnajokull National Park

Vatnajokull National Park i Europe' large National Park after merging of... more

Icelandic Cattle

The Icelandic cattle they originated from cattle brought from Norway during the... more

The Icelandic Sheep

Hi tory and background The modern Icelandic Sheep i a direct de cendant of... more

The Icelandic Horse

The Icelandic hor e live to a ripe old age, commonly to 35-40 The olde t... more

The Icelandic Sheep Dog

The Icelandic Sheepdog i Iceland' only native dog The Nordic ettler , who... more

Domestic Animals in Iceland

Documented ource confirm that the ettler originally brought the... more

Blue Whiting

The blue whiting' (Lat: Microme i tiu pouta ou) habitat i in the... more

Blue Mussel

The blue mu el (Lat: Mytilu eduli ) i common all around Iceland It i a... more

Blue Ling

The blue ling (Lat: Molva byrkelange) i mo tly 80-130 centimetre long It i... more

Basking Shark

The ba king hark (Lat: Cetorhinu maximu ) i the econd large t fi h pecie... more

Angler Fish

The habitat of the angler fi h (Lat: Lophiu pi catoriu ) are in the North... more

Gigjokull Glacier

About Gigjokull A one of Eyjafjallajokull Glacier´ Outlet , Gigjokull wa... more

Iceland – The Ice Ages

The Ice Age are period in the earth' hi tory when a ignificant, extended... more

Krokslon Reservoir

About Krok lon Re ervoir River Tungnaa wa gradually eroding a cha m through... more

Skorradalsvatn Lake

About Skorradal vatn Lake Lake Skorradal vatn ha an area of 14,7 km² It i... more

Graenalon Lagoon

About Graenalon Lagoon Glacial Lagoon Graenalon i a con tantly changing body... more

Sultartangi Reservoir

About Sultartangi Re ervoir River Thjor a and Tungnaa were dammed ju t ea t... more

Kvislaveita Lake

About Kvi laveita Lake The National Electricity Authority tarted work on the... more

Hop Lake

About Hop Lake Lake Hop i the country' fifth large t natural lake, ituated... more

Myvatn Lake

About Myvatn Lake Lake Myvatn ha an area of 36,5 km² It i ituated 277 m... more

Lagarfljot Lake

About Lagarfljot Lake River Lagarfljot i the econd large t one in the Ea t,... more

Thingvallavatn Lake

About Thingvallavatn Lake Lake Thingvallavatn i the large t „natural”... more

Thorisvatn Lake

About Thori vatn Lake Thi lake wa the econd large t natural lake of the... more

Kreppa River

About Kreppa River River Kreppa i a hort tributary of the 206 kilometre... more

Eyjafjardara Estuary River

About Eyjafjardara E tuary River The River Eyjafjardara E tuary, which i... more

Sog River

About Sog River Iceland’ large t pring fed river and a famou almon river... more

River Tungnaa

About River Tungnaa River Tungnaa di charge a larg area of the we tern part... more

Jokulsa a Fjollum

About Jokul a a Fjollum Thi glacial river, a di charge of the icecap... more

Holsa River

About Hol a River Thi pring fed river wa called Djupa (The Deep River) in... more

Hofsa Vopnafjordur

About Hof a Vopnafjordur A large river in the Vopnafiord region, fi hed with 6... more

Vididalsa, Fitja

About Vididal a Thi i one of the top river , producing a thou and almon in... more

Laxa River

About Laxa River Thi i one of Iceland’ major almon river and in many... more

Kudafljot River

About Kudafljot River River Kudafljot i the product of confluence of everal... more

Hvita River

About Hvita River Thi i a glacial river and the main artery of the... more

Fnjoska River

About Fnjo ka River Thi i rather a large run off and pring fed river, which... more

Blanda River

About Blanda River Thi i a large, partially a glacial river A dam linking to... more

Heradsvotn River

 About Herad votn River Herad votn run through the wide Skagafjordur Valley... more


About Skjalfandafljot Thi large volume glacial river ha ome of Iceland’... more

Tindfjallajokull Glacier

The total area of thi mall glacier i about 19 km² It i located ju t north... more

Drangajokull Glacier

Thi glacier i the northernmo t of the country  Becau e of it retreat... more

Grimsey Island

About Grim ey I land Grim ey i the northernmo t inhabited part of Iceland It... more

Heimaey Island

About Ve tmannaeyjar The We tman I land , "The Pearl in The Ocean", i an... more

Mt Kaldbakur

About Kaldbakur Mt Kaldbakur (998 m) i the highe t mountain of the We tfjord... more

Mt Dyrfjoll

About Dyrfjoll Mt Dyrfjoll (1136 m) mark the northernmo t boundarie of the... more

Mt Maelifellshnjukur

About Maelifell hnjukur Mt Maelifell hnjukur (1138 m) i located to the outh... more


About Snaekollur Thi va t and colourful rhyolite mountain ma if (150 km²),... more

Mt Kerling

Mt Kerling i the highe t mountain near inhabited area in the northern part of... more

Mts Kverkfjoll

Kverkfjoll i a mountain ma if underneath and on the northern edge of the... more


A Gey er i a hot pring, which erupt intermittently in a column of team and... more

The Colors of Icelandic Geology

Metamorpho i in High Temperature Area Yellow colour : Often pure ulphur... more

Geology in Highlands of Iceland

The Mountain Ma if Dyngjufjoll in the outhern Odadahraun lava area ha an... more

Geology in South Iceland

The outhern and Snaefell ne volcanic area are clear example of the... more

Geology in East Iceland

Re earch borehole confirmed dyke in exce of 50% of the tructure at the... more

Geology in North Iceland

Hverfjall Thi prototype of a Tuff Ring wa created during a 2-3 day ’... more

Geology in West Iceland

Crater Grabrok, in the extremely beautiful area urrounding Bifro t and the... more

Geology in South West Iceland

The Reykjane Zone i a o-called Rift Zone (thoelite) Earthquake are frequent... more

Geology of Iceland

The i land of the Atlantic Ocean created by the volcani m of the Middle... more

Northern Lights

The northern light (latin: aurora boreali ) are a pectacular natural colour... more

Skalafellsjokull Glacier

Glacier Tour were founded in 1985 The road up there i only 16 km long, but... more

Snaefellsnes Volcanoes

Volcanic activity on the penin ula till exi t in thi Flank Zone extending... more

The Westman Islands

About The We tman I land The We tman I land ’ volcanic y tem compri e... more

Namaskard hverir

Nama kard hverir Thi pectacular high temperature area (410 m above ea... more


The Nature Re erve Dimmuborgir, „The Dark Ca tle ”, are among the mo t... more

Hofsjokull Glacier

Glacier Hof jokull Ea t (1069m) i located ea t of Glacier Vatnajokull, between... more


Thi lava field and it two crater row were created by fi ure eruption One... more

Jokulsargljufur National Park

The Northern Part of National Park Vatnajokull Thi park wa e tabli hed in... more

Grimsvotn Central Volcano

Grim votn, under the centre of the Vatnajokull Ice Cap, i a large central... more

Eyjabakkajokull Glacier

The glacier nout Eyjabakkajokull i the ea ternmo t of the other much larger,... more

Eiriksjokull Glacier

Glacier Eirik jokull (1,675 m) ha an area of about 22 km q and re t on top... more

Dyngjuhals Ridge

The Dyngjuhal i a wide ridge ea t of Lake Gae avotn It i about 20 km wide... more


The central volcano Katla i hidden under the outhea tern part of the ice cap... more


The name of Mt Krafla wa extended over the high temperature area after the... more

Laki, Lakagigar

The 25 km long crater row called Lakagigar wa created during a relatively... more


About Lambatungnajokull Thi glacier nout flow down into the Skyndidalur... more

Langjokull Glacier

The Long Glacier (1355m) i the econd large t in Iceland It ha an area of... more


The Myrdal jokull glacier (1480m) i the fourth large t glacier with an area of... more

Bruarjokull Glacier

Thi glacier tongue i the large t of the many uch of the icecap Vatnajokull... more

Torfajokull glacier

The glacier Torfajokull peak at 1,190 m above ea level and it total area i... more

Mt. Bardarbunga

Mt Bardarbunga i the econd highe t elevation of the country, ju t below 2000... more


Mt Trolladyngja (4,815 feet) i a va t hield volcano at the northern end of... more

Mt. Askja – Dyngjufjoll

The Odadahraun lava de ert Thi i the va te t lava area of the country The... more


Mt Tungnafell (1,392 m) i a convex and teep mountain in the northern lope... more

Oraefajokull Glacier

Oraefajokull i the highe t mountain of the country, 2,110 m, and tretche to... more

Vatnajokull Glacier – Europes Largest Icecap

Vatnajokull (2110m) wa named after ub-glacial lake in a very volcanically... more

Breidamerkurjokull Glacier

Glacier Breidamerkurjokull count among the large t glacier tongue of the... more

Eyjafjallajokull Glacier

Eyjafjallajokull (Directly tran lated: "The I land Mountain ’ Glacier") or... more

Mt. Hekla – Volcano

The mo t "renowned or infamou " volcano of Iceland, Hekla, i ituated on a 25... more

Solheimajokull Glacier

The glacier nout Solheimajokull i the outhwe tern outlet of the... more

Skaftafell National Park

The Southern Part of National Park Vatnajokull The econd national park,... more

Thingvellir National Park

The Parliamentary Plain are the mo t important hi toric ite of the country... more


About Deildartunguhver Thi i probably the mo t voluminou natural hot pring... more

Snaefellsjokull glacier

The Snaefell glacier (1446m) ha an area of about 7 km² It cover a cone... more


The headland Buland hofdi fall teep into the ea to the ea t of the fi hing... more

National Park Snaefellsjokull

The Snaefell jokull National Park wa officially e tabli hed on the 28th of... more